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新メカニズムとは

気候変動交渉における市場メカニズムの位置づけ

バリからコペンハーゲンへ

2007年にインドネシア・バリで開催された、気候変動枠組条約(UNFCCC)第13回締約国会議(COP13)において、とりわけ先進国による適切な緩和目標と開発途上国による適切な緩和行動(NAMAs)を含む、強化された国及び国際社会による気候変動緩和のための行動について議論を行う特別作業部会(AWG)が設置されました。この特別作業部会での交渉結果を受けて、2009年デンマーク・コペンハーゲンで開催されたCOP15では、コペンハーゲン合意(Copenhagen Accord)を「留意する(take note)」という決定が採択されました。


新メカニズムの創設を検討開始

2010年にメキシコ・カンクンで開催されたCOP16で採択されたカンクン合意(Cancun Agreements)には、「(締約国は)COP17において、緩和行動の費用対効果を向上させ、また、促進するための、ひとつまたは複数の市場メカニズムの創設を検討することを決定する」との内容が盛り込まれました。

[参考 Decision 1/CP.16 カンクン合意:AWG-LCAの作業結果]
  • D. Various approaches, including opportunities for using markets, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions, bearing in mind different circumstances of developed and developing countries
  • 80. Decides to consider the establishment, at the seventeenth session of the Conference of the Parties, of one or more market-based mechanisms to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions, taking into account the following:
  • a. Ensuring voluntary participation of Parties, supported by the promotion of fair and equitable access for all Parties;
  • b. Complementing other means of support for nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties;
  • c. Stimulating mitigation across broad segments of the economy;
  • d. Safeguarding environmental integrity;
  • e. Ensuring a net decrease and/or avoidance of global greenhouse gas emissions;
  • f. Assisting developed country Parties to meet part of their mitigation targets, while ensuring that the use of such a mechanism or mechanisms is supplemental to domestic mitigation efforts;
  • g. Ensuring good governance and robust market functioning and regulation;

(FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1より抜粋)

カンクン合意に基づく2020年の排出削減目標を登録

日本政府はカンクン合意に基づく2020年の排出削減目標として、「2020年に2005年比3.8%以上削減」をUNFCCCに登録しています。2016年7月20日、目標達成の内容に関する共通様式を提出しました。

この目標においては、2020年における土地セクターによる4,690万tの吸収量に加え、二国間クレジット制度(JCM)の活用を想定しています。ただし、クリーン開発メカニズム(CDM)や共同実施(JI)、京都議定書17条に基づく国際排出量取引の活用は想定していません。また第一約束期間から繰越申請した割当量単位(AAU)についても、現時点では活用を想定していません。

様々なアプローチのための枠組み(FVA)

2011年12月に南アフリカ・ダーバンで開催されたCOP17において、将来の枠組みへの道筋、京都議定書第二約束期間の実施、緑の気候基金の運用、およびカンクン合意の実施を含む一連の決定が採択されました。COP17の決定文書には、新たなメカニズムに関して「気候変動枠組条約の下での長期的協力の行動のための特別作業部会(AWG-LCA)の作業結果」として以下のような内容が含まれています。

  • 市場利用の機会などを含む様々なアプローチは、実質的で恒久的かつ追加的で検証された緩和成果をもたらす標準を満たす必要があることを強調する。

[参考 Decision 2/CP.17 AWG-LCAの作業結果]
  • E. Various approaches, including opportunities for using markets, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions, bearing in mind different circumstances of developed and developing countries
  • 79. Emphasizes that various approaches, including opportunities for using markets, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions, bearing in mind different circumstances of developed and developing countries, must meet standards that deliver real, permanent, additional and verified mitigation outcomes, avoid double counting of effort, and achieve a net decrease and/or avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions;
  • 80. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to conduct a work programme to consider a framework for such approaches, with a view to recommending a decision to the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session;
  • 81. Invites Parties and admitted observer organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 5 March 2012, their views on the matters referred to in paragraphs 79 and 80 above, including their experiences, positive and negative, with existing approaches and mechanisms as well as lessons learned;
  • 82. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to conduct one or more workshops with Parties, experts and other stakeholders, including an in-session workshop at its session to be held in conjunction with the thirty sixth sessions of the subsidiary bodies, to consider the submissions referred to in paragraph 81 above and to discuss the matters referred to in paragraphs 79 and 80 above;
  • 83. Defines a new market-based mechanism, operating under the guidance and authority of the Conference of the Parties, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions, bearing in mind different circumstances of developed and developing countries, which is guided by decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 80, and which, subject to conditions to be elaborated, may assist developed countries to meet part of their mitigation targets or commitments under the Convention;
  • 84. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to conduct a work programme to elaborate modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 83 above, with a view to recommending a decision to the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth session;
  • 85. Invites Parties and admitted observer organizations to submit to the secretariat, by 5 March 2012, their views on the matters referred to in paragraphs 83 and 84 above, including their experiences, positive and negative, with existing approaches and mechanisms as well as lessons learned;
  • 86. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to conduct one or more workshops with Parties, experts and other stakeholders, including an in-session workshop at its session to be held in conjunction with the thirty sixth sessions of the subsidiary bodies, to consider the submissions referred to in paragraph 85 above and to discuss the matters referred to in paragraphs 83 and 84 above;

(FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1より抜粋)

先進国が提出する隔年報告書でJCM等の市場メカニズムによるユニットが報告されることに

2012年にカタール・ドーハで開催されたCOP18では、JCM等の市場メカニズムを含む様々なアプローチを実施するための「枠組み」を検討し、ダブルカウントの防止を含む課題に対処するための作業計画を実行していくことが決定されました。また、JCM等の市場メカニズムの活用が、カンクン合意に基づき先進国が今後2年おきに提出する隔年報告書のための共通報告様式に含まれることが合意されました。

[参考 Decision 1/CP.18 バリ行動計画のための合意された成果]
  • D. Various approaches, including opportunities for using markets, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions, bearing in mind different circumstances of developed and developing countries
  • 41. Acknowledges that Parties, individually or jointly, may develop and implement various approaches, including opportunities for using markets and non-markets, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions, bearing in mind different circumstances of developed and developing countries;
  • 42. Re-emphasizes that, as set out in decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 79, all such approaches must meet standards that deliver real, permanent, additional and verified mitigation outcomes, avoid double counting of effort and achieve a net decrease and/or avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions;
  • 43. Affirms that the use of such approaches facilitates an increase in mitigation ambition, particularly by developed countries;
  • 44. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to conduct a work programme to elaborate a framework for such approaches, drawing on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention on this matter, including the relevant workshop reports and technical paper, and experience of existing mechanisms, with a view to recommending a draft decision to the Conference of the Parties for adoption at its nineteenth session;
  • 45. Considers that any such framework will be developed under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties;
  • 46. Decides that the work programme referred to in paragraph 44 above shall address the following elements, inter alia:
    • (a) The purposes of the framework;
    • (b) The scope of approaches to be included under the framework;
    • (c) A set of criteria and procedures to ensure the environmental integrity of approaches in accordance with decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 79;
    • (d) Technical specifications to avoid double counting through the accurate and consistent recording and tracking of mitigation outcomes;
    • (e) The institutional arrangements for the framework;

(FCCC/CP/2012/8/Add.1より抜粋)

すべての国に対して約束草案(INDCs)の提出が求められるように

2013年にポーランド・ワルシャワで開催されたCOP19では、締約国会議(COP)は、すべての国に対し、約束草案(INDCs)のための国内準備を開始しCOP21に十分先立ち約束草案を提出することが招請された。また、強化された行動のためのダーバン・プラットフォーム特別作業部会(ADP)に対して、COP20までに、各国の約束草案によって提供する情報の特定を要請することが決定されました。
そして、2014年にペルー・リマで開催されたCOP20では、各国が自らの約束草案によって提供する情報(事前情報※)等を定めるCOP決定「気候行動のためのリマ声明(Lima Call for Climate Action)」が採択されました。

※事前情報については、参照値(基準年等)・期間・対象範囲・カバー率等を内容とすることができることを決定。

[参考 Decision 1-/CP.19 ダーバン・プラットフォームの更なる前進]
  • 2. Decides, in the context of its determination to adopt a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties at its twenty-first session (December 2015) and for it to come into effect and be implemented from 2020:
    • (a) To request the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action to further elaborate, beginning at its first session in 2014, elements for a draft negotiating text, taking into consideration its work, including, inter alia, on mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and transfer, capacity-building and transparency of action and support;
    • (b) To invite all Parties to initiate or intensify domestic preparations for their intended nationally determined contributions, without prejudice to the legal nature of the contributions, in the context of adopting a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties towards achieving the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2 and to communicate them well in advance of the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties (by the first quarter of 2015 by those Parties ready to do so) in a manner that facilitates the clarity, transparency and understanding of the intended contributions, without prejudice to the legal nature of the contributions;
    • (c) To request the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action to identify, by the twentieth session of the Conference of the Parties, the information that Parties will provide when putting forward their contributions, without prejudice to the legal nature of the contributions, referred to in paragraph 2(b) above;
    • (d) To urge and request developed country Parties, the operating entities of the financial mechanism and any other organizations in a position to do so to provide support for the related activities referred to in paragraphs 2(b) and 2(c) above as early as possible in 2014;
[参考 Decision 1/CP.20 気候行動のためのリマ声明]
  • Annex
    Elements for a draft negotiating text
  • M. Procedural and institutional provisions
    Institutional arrangements
  • 92. The governing body shall establish, building on the work conducted under the SBSTA regarding the framework for various approaches, means for cooperative arrangements to be defined and accounted for under the agreement, that strengthen and create synergies between mechanisms under the Convention and its related legal instruments and mechanisms established or to be established, jointly or individually, by Parties, and avoid the double counting of efforts, including:
    • -The Financial Mechanism;
    • -The Technology Mechanism;
    • -The flexibility mechanisms established by Articles 6 and 12 of the Kyoto Protocol;
    • -The new market-based mechanism defined in decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 83;
    • -Alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation;
    • -A REDD-plus mechanism / The Warsaw Framework for REDD-plus;
    • -A mechanism for climate resilience and sustainable development;
    • -A joint mitigation and adaptation mechanism for the integral and sustainable management of forests;
    • -Subnational, national and regional emissions trading schemes.

(FCCC/CP/2014/10/Add.1より抜粋)

2020年以降の市場メカニズムの活用

2015年にフランス・パリで開催されたCOP21では、2020年以降の温室効果ガス排出削減等のための新たな国際枠組みとしてパリ協定(Paris Agreement)が採択されました。本協定の第6条2-3項(協力的アプローチ)では、制度に参加する国の承認を前提として、海外で実現した排出削減・吸収量を各国の削減目標の達成に活用できる旨規定されており、JCMを含む市場メカニズムの活用が位置づけられました。今後、ダブルカウント防止等を含む確固としたアカウンティングのためのガイダンスを作成し、パリ協定締約国会議(CMA)において採択されることとなります。

また、日本は、ニュージーランドが提唱した、2020年以降も市場メカニズムが重要な役割を果たすというメッセージを世界に発信することを目的とした「炭素市場に関する閣僚宣言」にも参加しました。

COP21首脳会合プレナリーにおいては、安倍総理が日本代表として演説し、途上国支援、イノベーションからなる貢献策「美しい星への行動(ACE)2.0」を発表しました。スピーチにおいて「先進的な低炭素技術の多くは、途上国にとってなかなか投資回収を見込みにくいものです。日本は、二国間クレジット制度などを駆使することで、途上国の負担を下げながら、画期的な低炭素技術を普及させていきます。」と言及されました。

また、JCMに署名した16か国が一堂に会する「第3回JCMパートナー国会合」が開催され、JCMの進捗を歓迎し、引き続き協力してJCMを実施していくこと等が表明されました。

[参考 Decision 1/CP.21 パリ協定の採択]
  • Annex
    Article 6
  • 1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
  • 2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement.
  • 3. The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve nationally determined contributions under this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.
  • 4. A mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development is hereby established under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement for use by Parties on a voluntary basis. It shall be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, and shall aim:
    • (a) To promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development;
    • (b) To incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and private entities authorized by a Party;
    • (c) To contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its nationally determined contribution; and
    • (d) To deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions.
  • 5. Emission reductions resulting from the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall not be used to demonstrate achievement of the host Party's nationally determined contribution if used by another Party to demonstrate achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
  • 6. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall ensure that a share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article is used to cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
  • 7. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement shall adopt rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article at its first session.
  • 8. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, as appropriate. These approaches shall aim to:
    • (a) Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition;
    • (b) Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of nationally determined contributions; and
    • (c) Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements.
  • 9. A framework for non-market approaches to sustainable development is hereby defined to promote the non-market approaches referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article.

(FCCC/CP/2015/10/Add.1より抜粋)

パリ協定の発効と日本による批准

2016年4月22日、ニューヨークの国連本部において、国連事務総長等の主催によりパリ協定のハイレベル署名式が行われ、日本から吉川特命全権大使・国際連合日本政府常駐代表が署名を行いました。55か国以上の締結かつ全世界の排出量の55パーセント以上をカバーするという発効要件を満たし、同年11月4日にパリ協定は発効しました。日本は、同年11月6日、パリ協定の締結について国会の承認を得、国連本部において「パリ協定」の受諾書を国連事務総長に寄託しました。同年12月22日時点で118か国がパリ協定を締結済です。


*AAU: Assigned Amount Unit

*AWG: Ad hoc Working Group

*AWG-LCA: Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention

*CDM: Clean Development Mechanism

*COP: Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

*CMA: The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement

*FVA: framework for various approaches

*GHG: greenhouse gas

*INDC: intended nationally determined contributions

*JCM: Joint Crediting Mechanism

*JI: Joint Implementation

*NAMA: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions

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